Yerma, Tibetan Spice, Sichuan pepper, Japanese pepper, Aniseed pepper, Prickly ash

Yerma གཡེར་མ: A Flavor Extravaganza

Yerma, Tibetan Spice, Sichuan pepper, Japanese pepper, Aniseed pepper, Prickly ash

This mysterious, underused but established spice goes by a variety of names: Sichuan pepper, Japanese pepper, Aniseed pepper, Prickly ash, and others. The plant is said to belong to the citrus family – Zanthoxylum simulans.

Tibetans, though, call this burgundy pigmented and uniquely flavorful spice “Yerma” (གཡེར་མ), and in our cooking it enhances any dish. Because its tingly, lemony, and numbing pungency is so distinctly different from other pepper varieties, I call this classic Tibetan spice “All-in-one-flavor-extravaganza.”

Yerma, Tibetan Spice, Sichuan pepper, Japanese pepper, Aniseed pepper, Prickly ash

There are five Yerma trees in the garden of my family home, and three at our old wooden house where Grandma ruled while I was growing up. As with most Tibetan families in Rebgong, Yerma trees are usually planted in the garden corners, along the clay walls. With dark green, narrow-shaped leaves, and spiny trunks that grow to about ten feet high, the plants are similar to rose bushes in the sense of thorniness and high fragrance at their peak. The fruit is about five mm in diameter. Although growing them along the walls make it easier to position Mother’s ladder to pick the segmented berry fruit from higher up, I presume the grown-ups may also like the sense of security and protection around the house.

Yerma, Tibetan Spice, Sichuan pepper, Japanese pepper, Aniseed pepper, Prickly ash

Yerma, Tibetan Spice, Sichuan pepper, Japanese pepper, Aniseed pepper, Prickly ash

My siblings and I played an important part in the harvesting of the fruit because our small hands were uniquely suited to slip through the needled branches. And we had fun being an important part of a tradition. Once gathered, Grandma and Mother dried the berries in the shade, often indoors, to retain the oil, aroma and red hue. They permeated the entire house with a delectable, sensational aroma. The husks (outer coat) and seeds naturally split and come apart when dry, and the husks were then stored in a cool place. The seeds were discarded unless Grandma saved some to start a new tree.

And Grandma never missed an opportunity to send some to my Father in Rongbo, where he worked weekdays, to the nomadic families where Grandmother originally came from and to other friends. Nowadays they are shipped to cities within the country, and internationally since my siblings and I live in three different continents.

Yerma, Tibetan Spice, Sichuan pepper, Japanese pepper, Aniseed pepper, Prickly ash

For daily use, my mother (Ama in Tibetan) toasts Yerma lightly and then grinds them just the way Grandma did, with a pestle and mortar, adding a pinch of sea salt, and then seals the spice in an airtight container. Toasting lengthens both its shelf life and aroma, so Grandma told us.

This “All-in-one-flavor-extravaganza” not only lends a toasty, richly fragrant, and complex note to any dish but is also said to contain essential oils, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants.

Grandma used Yerma to season all types of dumpling fillings, pasties, hearty noodle soups, and stews, as well as sauces. Apa (father) mixes Yerma with sausages made from yak meat, mutton, and blood sausage. Ama keeps Grandma’s traditions but also flavors some of her dishes adopted from neighboring societies with the spice. And my brother uses them in his creations like hotpot long before their prime ripeness.

Yerma, Tibetan Spice, Sichuan pepper, Japanese pepper, Aniseed pepper, Prickly ash

Personally, I use the whole husks with chunky meats and pickling, and the ground in almost every dish – stir-frying, vegetables, chicken, stews – occasionally dash of black pepper for a change. With its bold flavors and versatility, Yerma helps me shy away from having 108 spice containers in my cabinet.

Yerma can be bought at spice specialty stores like Penzey’s and some Asian food markets in the U.S., but it will likely be labeled Sichuan Pepper. (Don’t worry, I’ll ask them to relabel the next time I stop by. But until then, look for a spice starting with Szechuan or Sichuan, if you are ever inclined to buy some.) It may appear more brownish in color because it is heated to meet U.S. import regulations.

Over to you. Have you used Yerma before?


  1. Hi Jolma,
    How wonderful!! I have known Yerma since I was a little kid but had no idea how Yerma is grown or how the plant looks like. This is the first time I read about Yerma. Thank you!! Just brought back some Mustang (Lho Manthang) Yerma from Nepal. They are so aromatic, I have purchased Yerma from China Town, Toronto but nothing like the one from Mustang. My kitchen is filled with aromatic Mustang Yerma right now. I love Yerma in hot chilly and momo.
    Also there is a herb called Zimbu or Jimbu from the Himalayas, it could be wild Himalayan onion but has a mild garlicky flavour. Never seen it fresh but dried once. I use this for potatoes, Thukpa or soups.

    Thank you so much for the wonderful blog on Yerma. Yes you are so right, it is os underrated, maybe because the early explorers didn’t discovered Yerma because it is mainly grown in the Himalayas. If you haven’t, try Mustang Yerma Mustang from Nepal.

    Tashi Delek

    • Hello Tenzin,
      Thank you for dropping by. And I’m pleased you’ve learned something about the Yerma plant. I grew up with it and can’t imagine cooking without it, especially momo and Thukpa.

      I haven’t tried Jimbu but just read more about it online ( It seems used in cooking as well as medicine. I will definitely try now. Thank you for sharing.

      And Tashi Delek to you, too.
      Smiles, Jolma

  2. I haven’t used yerma, but I will now. A one-spice path to a “flavor extravaganza” is something I think I should experience. And the macro photos are terrific.

    • Yes, path to flavor extravaganza, Joel. 🙂 It’s quite good. I use it all the time. Thank you for stopping by.

    • I’m glad the story gave you some insight. And thank you for your kind words and about the photo, taosresident. It means a lot to me.

  3. Hello Jolma, yes I have used Yerma, though under the name Sichuan pepper that I always keep on hand in my spice drawer, yet have never utilized in so many diverse uses as you suggest. Besides the spectacular photography, I am thrilled to have some background on the growth and production of the beautiful trees producing these highly flavored red berries of spice while nestled into the clay walls surrounding family homes as you share on Tibet. As well, I enjoyed the lovely tradition in your annual family harvest. Thank you for another interesting and insightful story, very much enjoyed.

    • Hi Peggy, I am not surprised. As a fabulous cook as you are, you keep yerma on handy, of course. This is a spice that lends a complex flavor to any dish. And fun memories harvesting this goodness with my siblings as a girl. Thank you for your support. It gives me great strength.

  4. I’ve always been a little afraid of Szechuan pepper – aka Yerma – thinking it would be too hot, but you make it sound too tasty to not try — so I will try it soon! I had no idea how pepper grew — great photos.

    • You should and you should try yerma. Not hot, it is a lemony, numbing and peppery sensation altogether. Thank you for stopping by, Kate.

  5. Hi, Jolma. I just wanted to wish you a happy birthday and thank you for the continued supply of Tibetan stories. I hope you have a beautiful day!

    • Hello Emma,

      I’m so pleased to hear that you enjoyed my story of Yerma གཡེར་མ (aka Sichuan peppercorns).
      By the way, I studied English in the UK (Cambridge) and loved my stay there. And than you for stopping by.


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